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Hydrogen Generator Gas for Vehicles and Engines: Vol 8 Hydrogen Production from Organic Material
by Samuel S. Wyer
ISBN:300 pages   5.5x8.5 inches [size]

Provides you with the fundamental knowledge upon which any rational discussion about Hydrogen Science must be based. Contains information on the physics and applied chemistry that make up the foundation of hydrogen based energy production. This book was written by a great man named Samuel S. Wyer. We have republished his work, A Treatise on Producer-Gas and Gas-Producers as, Hydrogen Production from Organic Material by Partial Oxidation and Steam Reformation.





Originally titled "A Treatise on Producer-Gas and Gas-Producers," this book has been re-titled because the previous title does not mean much to people in the year 2007. Many people don't know what a "treatise" is. If you have seen the books that start with, "An Idiots Guide to...." that is basically a treatise, or a primer. It’s basically everything that you could want to know about the subject from beginning to end, with very in depth explanation. This book is extremely well written, it was written such that the average person who does not have a college education can understand it.  NO instructor will be needed to interpret or explain the subject to you.

If your great grandfather (or grandfather) had an internal combustion engine to run his grain mill or small shop it probably ran on hydrogen. If he had a gas oven in his city home or apartment it ran on hydrogen. This was called a variety of names back then; Town gas, illuminating gas, water gas, producer-gas, blue gas and many others. Most of these gases were dominated by hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Back when internal combustion engines were a new technology the refining of oil for use in an engine was not a predominate technology. Many of the first IC engines ran on gas that had to be made right next to the engine. In this sense we are calling "gas" what it is, a gas, we are not referring to the short hand for gasoline. This gas can be made from coal or coke or biomass.

Biomass can be wood, corn husks or any other type of agriculture waste (or energy crop) that can be found. The gas producers run best on 'chunky' types of fuel. Ranging in size from walnuts to softball size lumps. You can run them on smaller material and larger material but golf ball to baseball size is ideal, depending on the size of the unit being constructed.

Depending on the moisture content of your material being put in the gas producer, and whether or not you are using steam in combination with air entering the producer, the gas output of a gas producer will contain a large percentage of hydrogen (H or H2). The other dominate output product is carbon monoxide (CO). Carbon Monoxide is thought by most people to be a poison that kills people in the night when their furnace stops running correctly. Which can be true, however, CO is a beautiful fuel and burns almost as well as hydrogen does in an internal combustion engine. If additional steam

(H2O) is added to CO at the right temperature conditions, then more hydrogen (H2) is produced and the CO becomes carbon dioxide (CO2). In modern chemical language this is called a Water Gas Shift (WGS). The addition of steam or water to incandescent carbon based material to produce hydrogen (H2O + C à CO + H2) is called Stream Reformation. Adding air to a fire such that it does not have complete combustion and thus producing CO instead of the full byproduct of combustion (CO2) is called Partial Oxidation (POX). While this is a good way of making CO on a small scale the majority of this book takes this process one step further, Carbon (C) plus Oxygen (O2) from the air burning forms Carbon Dioxide (CO2). The CO2 is HOT and so is the carbon it just combusted with as is the carbon ahead of it that it is about to contact. HOT CO2 mixed with HOT C forms back down to CO. So what you get is C + O2 à CO2 + CàCO. Carbon burned with oxygen (COMBUSTINON) makes hot carbon dioxide. When this is put in contact with hot carbon it forms carbon monoxide. In this book, and in modern chemistry, this is called REDUCTION. Combustion is also called OXIDATION. So this is Oxidation / Reduction chemistry.



Vapor pressure

For a given liquid there corresponds to each temperature a certain definite pressure of its vapor, at which the two will remain in contact unchanged. Thus In Figure 1 the gas pressure, P, of the vapor, V, balances the vapor tension, T, of the liquid L. This gas pressure is said to be the vapor pressure of the liquid at that temperature, and the vapor itself is said to be saturated. The relation between water-vapor pressure at saturation and temperature is shown in table 11, p. 267.


The action in the producer

For the proper understanding of the action of a gas-producer, it is desirable to divide it into four zones, the relative position of these being given in Figure 2. However, the line of demarcation between the respective zones is not very distinct in practice.


Types of steam blowers

The Siemens steam-jet blower is shown in Fig. 4. It consists of a body A with air inlet B and steam inlet C. D is the outer conical nozzle and E is the inner conical nozzle. D may be adjusted by nut F and thus change the space between A and thereby regulate the amount of air that may enter. E may be adjusted by hand wheel G, and thus regulate the thickness of the annular steam jet. H is a tapering spindle to prevent reflux through the combined current. I is the pipe to the producer


Bischof producer

This producer is shown in Fig. 11, which gives all the general dimensions of same. The central part or body of the furnace A, where the gases are generated, is cylindrical; the upper part B and the under part D are conical. R is a grate, underneath which is an ash pit E, closed by an iron plate F. An opening immedi­ately above the grate is arranged to be closed by an iron door G; S is a damper in the delivery flue. The throat of the producer is separated from the body by a damper C, and the top is closed by an iron lid P. The volume included between C and P is suf­ficient to hold one charge of the fuel with which the producer is charged at intervals; by moving C, when P is closed, the charge of fuel can be introduced through the throat without any escape of gas. The air required for combustion enters through several apertures in the plate F; these are so arranged that their areas can be increased or diminished. The progress of combustion is under control by means of the damper and the apertures referred to, and can be observed through the holes 0, which, when not in use, are closed by brick stoppers.

When the producer is working properly, its interior, as viewed through the lowest hole, should appear incandescent; at the middle hole the action should be less intense, and at the upper hole no signs of ignition should be visible. When the latter is not the case, there is much danger that the CO2 will be excessive. In order to diminish this trouble, the fuel bed should be increased in thickness and possibly the amount of air should be decreased. No blast is used and the draft is produced by the furnace which the producer supplies.


Ebelmen's producers

Ebelmen designed, built, and operated three types of gas-pro­ducers at the iron works of Audincourt, France. The first of these is illustrated in Fig. 12, which shows the application of the producer to a puddling furnace. A is the ash chamber into which the blast is introduced; it then passes up through the grates B and into the fuel above. Steam is admitted at C. D is the charging hopper. E is the furnace in which the gas is burned, the air for combustion being pre-heated by passing through the pipes G and then introduced into the fur­nace at F.

The following is an explanation of Figure 21: A ash pit, B fire­brick hearth or grate, C air-passage ways for heating air supplied to injectors, D injector pipes leading to center of grate, E and H screw and hub for giving grate the rotary and up-and-down motion, F furnace, G vertical grate bars, I steam boiler, J hot-water coils connecting with boiler, K superheating steam coils communicating with boiler, L dust valve, M injectors, N hopper to supply coal to furnace, 0, P, Q mechanism for rotating grate, R gas take-off pipe, S water seal, T butterfly valve for dumping ashes. 

Otto-Hoffman Oven

The Otto-Hoffman oven in the American form is shown in sectional perspective in Fig. 83. The coking chamber itself consists of a long, narrow retort of firebrick construction, a number of such retorts, usually 50, being placed side by side to form a battery. The dimensions of this retort are 33 ft. long, 61 ft. high, and from 17 in. to 22 in. in width, containing 6 to 7 net tons of coal at a charge. The walls of the retort are built with ver­tical internal flues, heated by gas. The ends of the retorts are closed by iron doors, lined with firebrick, fitting closely to the brickwork and luted with clay. These are raised and lowered by a winch or by an electrical lifting device. The coal is charged into the ovens from three larries moved by hand along tracks, laid on the oven top or, in the later plants, by a single electrically operated larry as shown in the illustration. The single larry has spouts which deliver the coal from corresponding openings in the oven top to the oven chamber below. The coke is pushed out of the oven by the electrically operated pusher and is received and quenched on a wharf, from which it is loaded by hand into railroad cars on a depressed track alongside. The heating of the oven is done by gas, returned from the condensing house through lines running along each side of the battery, there being a burner at each end of each oven. Only one burner is used at a time. The air for combustion is taken in at the end of the battery, where the gas and air reversing valves are located, and is led through the underground passages, shown in the figure, to the flues beneath the regenerative chambers. These extend the whole length of the oven battery and are filled with checker-brick. The air rising through this checkerwork is heated to a high degree, passing then through uptake connections to the space beneath the floor of the oven chambers, and through lateral ports to the combustion chamber, where it meets the gas from the burner. The burning gases rise through the vertical flues of half the wall, pass along the horizontal connecting flue above, and down the remaining vertical flues to the horizontal flues below, thence passing to the regenerator, where their sensible heat is absorbed by the checkerwork. From there they are led to the lower regenerator flue, past the reversing valve to the draft stack. On the reversal of the air and gas, the gas burner on the other end of the oven comes into use, the air passing up through the heated regenerator on that side, and to the gas chamber and combustion chamber, the heated gases passing in a reverse direction through the wall flues downward through the regenerator and so to the stack. The period of reversal is 30 minutes.




Hydrogen Generator Gas for Vehicles and Engines: Vol 8 Hydrogen Production from Organic Material
by Samuel S. Wyer
ISBN:300 pages   5.5x8.5 inches [size]